The Caribbean side had lost the first Test in Brisbane by an innings and 65 runs within three days.
The second Test will begin here on Friday.
The West Indies Cricket Board said Taylor will return home today.
Team manager Joel Garner the 25-year-old injured his left hip and back while bowling on the opening day of the first Test Match at the Gabba. He bowled nine overs but was able to bat in both innings.
He will return to Jamaica on Tuesday to continue his rehabilitation. No replacement player has been named at the moment.
The Team Management and selectors are in the process of discussing reinforcement, a WICB statement said.
Meanwhile, middle-order batsman Ramnaresh Sarwan has been responding well to treatment for a back injury sustained ahead of the first Test, the statement